Glossary

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General Terms

Gigaleak
The widely publicized Nintendo source code and asset leaks from July 2020, so-called due to its' large size and scope.

Development Codenames

Nitro
Nintendo’s internal development name for the Nintendo DS, which is used as the name of the file system used in commercial NDS games.
Twilight
Nintendo's internal development name for the Nintendo DSi. Commonly shortened to TWL in file names or documentation.
Project BB
Internal name for the iQue Player, a special version of the N64 developed for and sold in China.
Broadway & Hollywood
The Wii system chips. Broadway is the codename for the CPU by IBM, while Hollywood is the codename for the GPU by ATi (and BroadOn).
IOS / IOP-OS
The Wii operating system, developed by BroadOn, who also created the boot ROMs (boot0, boot1, BC, boot2).

Data Mining

Assembly
A programming language directly corresponding to machine code. This language is specific to the machine or architecture it’s written for. A file written in assembly language is typically made out of code and can include assets encoded as data (in the form of data defines or db’s, followed by a set of numbers in hexadecimal, decimal, or binary).
Emulator
Generally, an emulator is any program that enables one system to act as another. It does this by replicating the functionality and behavior of the target (“guest”) system, also known as “emulating” the system. It’s most commonly used to run games and applications not made for certain systems, for example, running a gameboy rom on a computer, running a n64 game on an Xbox, running old DOS applications (with the old DOS operating system) on a modern computer, and much more.
ROM
Most commonly referring to the contents of a read-only memory chip inside the cartridge, which is dumped to a binary file for emulation and preservation purposes. Read-Only Memory is the part of a cartridge or system that stores game data, and not save data.
Bit
A single binary digit, either a 0 or a 1 (off or on, down or up, etc.). Consider the decimal number 12, it’s made up of two digits: 1 and 2. If we refer to them by their “places” (its index), with the rightmost digit indexed at digit 0 and counting the index upwards as we go left, we can say that digit 0 = 2 and digit 1 = 1. Consider the same number in binary: %1100. Bit 0 = 0, bit 1 = 0, bit 2 = 1 and bit 3 = 1. This is the standard notation by which to refer to bits.
Byte
A group of 8 bits. This is the smallest unit that data is usually conveyed and worked with, and encoded in hexadecimal to make it easier to read (compare $95 vs %10010101) A nybble such as %1011 directly corresponds to $B. Given %1110, it corresponds to $E. Combining both into a byte, %10111110 can be represented as $BE.
Nybble
A group of 4 bits, also known as a half-byte. As a half-byte, bits 0-3 are referred as the low nybble (the lower half of a byte), while bits 4-7 are referred as the high nybble (the upper half of a byte).
Audio bit depth
How many different bits your audio can have. For example, most PCM audio is formatted with a bit depth of 24. That’s called 24-bit audio. When we take something like 1-bit audio, for example, each sample can only be given an OFF/ON value, and every sample is only either a 1 or a 0.
Sample rate
How many times per second a new sample is shown in audio. Because people can only hear frequencies up to 22,050 Hz, and for every audible frequency you need 2 samples of audio, the most common audio sample rate is 44,100 Hz, or 44.1khz. (look up “Nyquist frequency” if you wanna read more about that)
PCM
Pulse Code Modulation, basically the audio format that’s used in things like .WAV, .BRSTM, .AIFF, and more. It stores each sample separately as its own set of data and encodes the sample’s amplitude as a number. This number depends on how it’s encoded.